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26/08/2010 / Danresa Consultoria de Informática

Oracle Imp e Exp syntaxe

oracle imp/exp

These tools are used to transfer data from one oracle database to another oracle database. You Export tool to export data from source database, and Import tool to load data into the target database. When you export tables from source database export tool will extracts the tables and puts it into the dump file. This dump file is transferred to the target database. At the target database the Import tool will copy the data from dump file to the target database.
From Ver. 10g Oracle is recommending to use Data Pump Export and Import tools, which are enhanced versions of original Export and Import tools.
The export dump file contains objects in the following order:
1.Type definitions2.Table definitions3.Table data4.Table indexes5.Integrity constraints, views, procedures, and triggers6.Bitmap, function-based, and domain indexes
When you import the tables the import tool will perform the actions in the following order, new tables are created, data is imported and indexes are built, triggers are imported, integrity constraints are enabled on the new tables, and any bitmap, function-based, and/or domain indexes are built. This sequence prevents data from being rejected due to the order in which tables are imported. This sequence also prevents redundant triggers from firing twice on the same data
Invoking Export and Import
You can run Export and Import tool in two modes
Command Line Mode
Interactive Mode
When you just type exp or imp at o/s prompt it will run in interactive mode i.e. these tools will prompt you for all the necessary input. If you supply command line arguments when calling exp or imp then it will run in command line mode
Command Line Parameters of Export tool
You can control how Export runs by entering the EXP command followed
by various arguments. To specify parameters, you use keywords:
Format: EXP KEYWORD=value or KEYWORD=(value1,value2,…,valueN)
Example: EXP SCOTT/TIGER GRANTS=Y TABLES=(EMP,DEPT,MGR)
or TABLES=(T1:P1,T1:P2), if T1 is partitioned table

Keyword Description (Default)
————————————————————–
USERID username/password
BUFFER size of data buffer
FILE output files (EXPDAT.DMP)
COMPRESS import into one extent (Y)
GRANTS export grants (Y)
INDEXES export indexes (Y)
DIRECT direct path (N)
LOG log file of screen output
ROWS export data rows (Y)
CONSISTENT cross-table consistency(N)
FULL export entire file (N)

OWNER list of owner usernames

TABLES list of table names

RECORDLENGTH length of IO record

INCTYPE incremental export type

RECORD track incr. export (Y)

TRIGGERS export triggers (Y)

STATISTICS analyze objects (ESTIMATE)

PARFILE parameter filename
CONSTRAINTS export constraints (Y)
OBJECT_CONSISTENT transaction set to read only during object export (N)

FEEDBACK display progress every x rows (0)

FILESIZE maximum size of each dump file

FLASHBACK_SCN SCN used to set session snapshot back to

FLASHBACK_TIME time used to get the SCN closest to the specified time

QUERY select clause used to export a subset of a table

RESUMABLE suspend when a space related error is encountered(N)

RESUMABLE_NAME text string used to identify resumable statement

RESUMABLE_TIMEOUT wait time for RESUMABLE

TTS_FULL_CHECK perform full or partial dependency check for TTS

TABLESPACES list of tablespaces to export

TRANSPORT_TABLESPACE export transportable tablespace metadata (N)

TEMPLATE template name which invokes iAS mode export

The Export and Import tools support four modes of operation
FULL :Exports all the objects in all schemas
OWNER :Exports objects only belonging to the given OWNER
TABLES :Exports Individual Tables
TABLESPACE :Export all objects located in a given TABLESPACE.

Example of Exporting Full Database
The following example shows how to export full database
$exp USERID=scott/tiger FULL=y FILE=myfull.dmp
In the above command, FILE option specifies the name of the dump file, FULL option specifies that you want to export the full database, USERID option specifies the user account to connect to the database. Note, to perform full export the user should have DBA or EXP_FULL_DATABASE privilege.
Example of Exporting Schemas
To export Objects stored in a particular schemas you can run export utility with the following arguments
$exp USERID=scott/tiger OWNER=(SCOTT,ALI) FILE=exp_own.dmp
The above command will export all the objects stored in SCOTT and ALI’s schema.
Exporting Individual Tables
To export individual tables give the following command
$exp USERID=scott/tiger TABLES=(scott.emp,scott.sales) FILE=exp_tab.dmp
This will export scott’s emp and sales tables.
Exporting Consistent Image of the tables
If you include CONSISTENT=Y option in export command argument then, Export utility will export a consistent image of the table i.e. the changes which are done to the table during export operation will not be exported.
Using Import Utility
Objects exported by export utility can only be imported by Import utility. Import utility can run in Interactive mode or command line mode.
You can let Import prompt you for parameters by entering the IMP command followed by your username/password:
Example: IMP SCOTT/TIGER
Or, you can control how Import runs by entering the IMP command followed
by various arguments. To specify parameters, you use keywords:
Format: IMP KEYWORD=value or KEYWORD=(value1,value2,…,valueN)
Example: IMP SCOTT/TIGER IGNORE=Y TABLES=(EMP,DEPT) FULL=N
or TABLES=(T1:P1,T1:P2), if T1 is partitioned table
USERID must be the first parameter on the command line.
Keyword
Description (Default)

USERID
username/password

BUFFER
size of data buffer

FILE
input files (EXPDAT.DMP)

SHOW
just list file contents (N)

IGNORE
ignore create errors (N)

GRANTS
import grants (Y)

INDEXES
import indexes (Y)

ROWS
import data rows (Y)

LOG
log file of screen output

FULL
import entire file (N)

FROMUSER
list of owner usernames

TOUSER
list of usernames

TABLES
list of table names

RECORDLENGTH
length of IO record

INCTYPE
incremental import type

COMMIT
commit array insert (N)

PARFILE
parameter filename

CONSTRAINTS
import constraints (Y)

DESTROY
overwrite tablespace data file (N)

INDEXFILE
write table/index info to specified file

SKIP_UNUSABLE_INDEXES
skip maintenance of unusable indexes (N)

FEEDBACK
display progress every x rows(0)

TOID_NOVALIDATE
skip validation of specified type ids

FILESIZE
maximum size of each dump file

STATISTICS
import precomputed statistics (always)

RESUMABLE
suspend when a space related error is encountered(N)

RESUMABLE_NAME
text string used to identify resumable statement

RESUMABLE_TIMEOUT
wait time for RESUMABLE

COMPILE
compile procedures, packages, and functions (Y)

STREAMS_CONFIGURATION
import streams general metadata (Y)

STREAMS_INSTANITATION
import streams instantiation metadata (N)

Example Importing Individual Tables
To import individual tables from a full database export dump file give the following command
$imp scott/tiger FILE=myfullexp.dmp FROMUSER=scott TABLES=(emp,dept)
This command will import only emp, dept tables into Scott user and you will get a output similar to as shown below
Export file created by EXPORT:V10.00.00 via conventional path
import done in WE8DEC character set and AL16UTF16 NCHAR character set
. importing SCOTT’s objects into SCOTT
. . importing table “DEPT” 4 rows imported
. . importing table “EMP” 14 rows imported
Import terminated successfully without warnings.
Example, Importing Tables of One User account into another User account
For example, suppose Ali has exported tables into a dump file mytables.dmp. Now Scott wants to import these tables. To achieve this Scott will give the following import command
$imp scott/tiger FILE=mytables.dmp FROMUSER=ali TOUSER=scott
Then import utility will give a warning that tables in the dump file was exported by user Ali and not you and then proceed.
Example Importing Tables Using Pattern Matching
Suppose you want to import all tables from a dump file whose name matches a particular pattern. To do so, use “%” wild character in TABLES option. For example, the following command will import all tables whose names starts with alphabet “e” and those tables whose name contains alphabet “d”
$imp scott/tiger FILE=myfullexp.dmp FROMUSER=scott TABLES=(a%,%d%)
Migrating a Database across platforms.
The Export and Import utilities are the only method that Oracle supports for moving an existing Oracle database from one hardware platform to another. This includes moving between UNIX and NT systems and also moving between two NT systems running on different platforms.
The following steps present a general overview of how to move a database between platforms.
1.As a DBA user, issue the following SQL query to get the exact name of all tablespaces. You will need this information later in the process.SQL> SELECT tablespace_name FROM dba_tablespaces;
2.As a DBA user, perform a full export from the source database, for example:> exp system/manager FULL=y FILE=myfullexp.dmp
3.Move the dump file to the target database server. If you use FTP, be sure to copy it in binary format (by entering binary at the FTP prompt) to avoid file corruption.4.Create a database on the target server.5.Before importing the dump file, you must first create your tablespaces, using the information obtained in Step 1. Otherwise, the import will create the corresponding datafiles in the same file structure as at the source database, which may not be compatible with the file structure on the target system.6.As a DBA user, perform a full import with the IGNORE parameter enabled:> imp system/manager FULL=y IGNORE=y FILE=myfullexp.dmp
Using IGNORE=y instructs Oracle to ignore any creation errors during the import and permit the import to complete.
Perform a full backup of your new database.
Posted by Jephe Wu at 1:23 AM Labels: exp, imp, oracle

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